<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
<ArticleSet>
  <Article>
    <Journal>
      <PublisherName>jmedicalcasereports</PublisherName>
      <JournalTitle>Frontiers in Medical Case Reports</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>I</PISSN>
      <EISSN>S</EISSN>
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 1; Issue 1, (Jan-Jun,2021)</Volume-Issue>
      <PartNumber/>
      <IssueTopic>Multidisciplinary</IssueTopic>
      <IssueLanguage>English</IssueLanguage>
      <Season>Archives of Medical and Clinical Research</Season>
      <SpecialIssue>N</SpecialIssue>
      <SupplementaryIssue>N</SupplementaryIssue>
      <IssueOA>Y</IssueOA>
      <PubDate>
        <Year>-0001</Year>
        <Month>11</Month>
        <Day>30</Day>
      </PubDate>
      <ArticleType>Medical and Clinical Research</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Case Treated with A Glucantime-Based Lotion Experienced in Ecuador and A Mini Review</ArticleTitle>
      <SubTitle/>
      <ArticleLanguage>English</ArticleLanguage>
      <ArticleOA>Y</ArticleOA>
      <FirstPage>1</FirstPage>
      <LastPage>15</LastPage>
      <AuthorList>
        <Author>
          <FirstName>Yoshihisa</FirstName>
          <LastName>Hashiguchi</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>N</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>Lenin V.</FirstName>
          <LastName>Nieto</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>Nancy C.</FirstName>
          <LastName>Villegas</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>Eduardo A.</FirstName>
          <LastName>Gomez</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>Hirotomo</FirstName>
          <LastName>Kato</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
        </Author>
      </AuthorList>
      <DOI/>
      <Abstract>A 1.5-year-old male patient living in a remote community in the southeast of Manab__ampersandsigniacute; province of Ecuador was diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. He was treated with a lotion, meglumine antimoniate Glucantime plus Merthiolate chloride, applying four to five times a day during eight weeks. The complete cure of lesion was obtained. This childhood-CL case did not respond against systemic therapy with Glucantime for the first cycle of regimen administered before the current topical treatment. Although systemic administration of pentavalent antimonials still remain as the first choice of treatment, it may often cause severe side effects, in addition to various disadvantages, such as painful injections, long-term regimens, difficulty to access health centers for patients living in remote/mountainous endemic areas. Therefore, as the alternatives, effective, easy-applicable and patient-compliant treatment is urgent need, especially for childhood-CL patients, who are highly vulnerable for toxic, systemic administrations of the drug. The current Glucantime plus Merthiolate lotion could be recommended as a future topical therapy of CLs, because of several advantages, easy-application, already-used drug as systemic therapy for the disease for a long time, more than 70 years.</Abstract>
      <AbstractLanguage>English</AbstractLanguage>
      <Keywords>Cutaneous Leishmaniasis,Topical Treatment,Meglumine Antimoniate,Ecuador</Keywords>
      <URLs>
        <Abstract>https://jmedicalcasereports.org/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=15233&amp;title=Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Case Treated with A Glucantime-Based Lotion Experienced in Ecuador and A Mini Review</Abstract>
      </URLs>
      <References>
        <ReferencesarticleTitle>References</ReferencesarticleTitle>
        <ReferencesfirstPage>16</ReferencesfirstPage>
        <ReferenceslastPage>19</ReferenceslastPage>
        <References>Aksoy M, Doni N, Ozkul HU, Yesilova Y, Ardic N, Yesilova A, Ahn-Jarvis J, Oghumu S, Terrazas C, Satoskar AR. Pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region in Turkey: A retrospective analysis of 8786 cases during 1998-2014. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016; 10: e0004835.&#13;
&#13;
Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M, “the WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team”. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One 2012; 7: e35671.&#13;
&#13;
Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Calvopiand;ntilde;a M, Mancheno M, Rodriguez R. Comparison of the effectiveness of two topical paromomycin treatments vs meglumine antimoniate for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 2004; 91: 153-160.&#13;
&#13;
Ben Salah A, Messaoud NB, Guedri E, Zaatour A, Alaya NB, Bettaieb J, Gharbi A, Hamida NB, Boukthir A, Chlif S, Abdelhamid K, Ahmadi ZE, Louzir H, Mokni M, Morizot G, Buffet P, Smith PL, Kopydlowski KM, Kreishman-Deitrick M, Smith KS. Topical paromomycin with or without gentamicin for cutaneous leishmaniasis. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 524-532.&#13;
&#13;
Blum J, Desjeux P, Schwartz E, Beck B, Hatz C. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53: 158-166.&#13;
&#13;
Blum J, Lockwood DNJ, Visser L, Harms G, Bailey MS, Caumes E, Clerinx J, van Thiel PPAM, Morizot G, Hatz C, Buffet P. Local or systemic treatment for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis? Re-evaluating the evidence for the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis. Int Health 2012; 4: 153-163.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Armijos RX, Hashiguchi Y. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99: 663-672.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Armijos RX, Marco JD, Uezato H, Kato H, Gomez EAL, Korenaga M, Barroso PA, Mimori T, Cooper PJ, Nonaka S, Hashiguchi Y. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation. BMC Inf Dis 2006; 6: 139.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Cevallos W, Paredes Y, Puebla,E, Flores J, Loor R, Padilla J. Intralesional infiltration with meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis in Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017; 97: 1508-1512.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Kato H, Hashiguchi Y. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis and its topical treatment from Ecuador. Trop Med Health 2013b; 41: 93–94.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Martinez L, Hashiguchi Y. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Chiclero ulcer in subtropical Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013a; 89: 195-196.&#13;
&#13;
Calvopiand;ntilde;a MH, Romero-Alvarez D, Kato H, Hashiguchi Y. Leishmaniasis cutanea esporotricoide (pian bois) causada por Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis en el Ecuador. Rev Enfermed Inf Microbiol Clin 2014; 32: 465-466.&#13;
&#13;
Castro MM, Gomez MA, Kip AE, Cossio A, Ortiz E, Navas A, Dorlo TPC, Saravia NG. Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in children and adults with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017; 61: e02198-16.&#13;
&#13;
Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19: 111-126.&#13;
&#13;
Dar MJ, Din FU, Khan GM. Sodium stibogluconate loaded nano- deformable liposomes for topical treatment of leishmaniasis: macrophage as a target cell. Drug Deliv 2018; 25: 1595-1606.&#13;
&#13;
Davidson RN, Yardley V, Croft SL, Konecny P, Benjamin N. A topical nitric oxide-generating therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2000; 50: 296-311.&#13;
&#13;
El-On J, Livshin R, Even-Paz Z, Hamburger D, Weinrauch L. Topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Invest Dermatol 1986; 87: 284-288.&#13;
&#13;
El-On J, Weinrauch L, Livshin R, Jacobs GP, Even-Paz Z. Topical treatment of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis with paromomycin-methylbenzethonium chloride ointment. Br Med J 1985; 291: 704-705.&#13;
&#13;
Espuelas S, Schwartz J, Moreno E. Nanoparticles in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: gaps, facts, and perspectives. Nanosci Dermatol 2016; 11: 135-155.&#13;
&#13;
Garnier T, Croft SL. Topical treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2002; 3: 538-544.&#13;
&#13;
Gasser RA Jr, Magill AJ, Oster CN, Franke ED, Grand;ouml;gl M, Berman JD. Pancreatitis induced by pentavalent antimonial agents during treatment of leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 83-90.&#13;
&#13;
Gomez EAL, Briones MI, Ibarra LV, Almeida RF, Martini LR, Flor T, Muzzio J, Chum YYW, Sud RA, Kato H, Uezato H, Hashiguchi Y. A case report of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, resistant to antimonial chemotherapy but cured with later cryosurgery in Ecuador. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New and Old World Leishmaniases and their Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador, Peru, Argentina and Pakistan (Res. Rep. Ser. 8). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 2007; p: 163-168.&#13;
&#13;
Gomez EAL, Hashiguchi Y. Treatment and protection of leishmaniasis in Ecuador. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New and Old World Leishmaniasis and Its Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador (Res. Rep. Ser. 2). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 1990; p: 190-192.&#13;
&#13;
Gonand;ccedil;alves SVCB, Costa CHN. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with thermotherapy in Brazil: an efficacy and safety study. An Bras Dermatol 2018; 93: 347-355.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Cand;aacute;ceres AG, Criollo ML, Gomez EAL, Yamamoto Y, Kato H. A brief note on the American cutaneous leishmaniasis at an Andean community, Lanca, Province of Huarochiri, Department of Lima, Peru. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New and Old World Leishmaniases and their Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador, Peru, Argentina and Pakistan (Res. Rep. Ser. 8). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 2007a; p. 203-208.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EA, Velez LN, Villegas NV, Kubo M, Mimori T, Hashiguchi K, Kato H. Anthropophilic phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia species and search for the natural Leishmania infections in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Acta Trop 2020; 203: 105287.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, A brief comment on combating leishmaniasis in Ecuador –general situation-. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador (Res. Rep. Ser. 2). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 1990; p: 185-189.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, A review of leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Bull Pan Am Health Org 1991; 25: 64-76.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, Cand;aacute;ceres AG, Velez LN, Villegas NV, Hashiguchi K, Mimori T, Uezato H, Kato H. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Acta Trop 2018; 177: 135-145.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, Coronel VV, Mimori T, Kawabata M, Furuya M, Nonaka S, Takaoka M, Alexander JB, Quizhpe AM, Grimaldi GJr, Kreutzer RD, Tesh RB. Andean leishmaniasis in Ecuador caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana and L. major-like parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1991; 44: 205-217.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, Kato H, Martini-Robles L, Velez LN, Uezato H. Diffuse cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis: cases experienced in Ecuador and a brief review. Trop Med Health 2016; 44: 2.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, Mimori T. An adult case report of cutaneous Andean leishmaniasis “Ecuadorian uta, usually affects lower age groups in Ecuador, caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana parasites. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New and Old World Leishmaniases and their Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador, Peru, Argentina and Pakistan (Res. Rep. Ser. 8). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 2007b; p: 169-174.&#13;
&#13;
Hashiguchi Y, Velez LN, Villegas NV, Mimori T, Gomez EAL, Kato H. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: comprehensive review and current status. Acta Trop 2017; 166: 299-315.&#13;
&#13;
Hendriksen TH, Lende S. Treatment of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with chlorpromazine ointment. Lancet 1983; 1: 126.&#13;
&#13;
Ives A, Ronet C, Prevel F, Ruzzante G, Fuertes-Marraco S, Schutz F, Zangger H, Revaz-Breton M, Lye LF, Hickerson SM, Beverley SM, Acha-Orbea H, Launois P, Fasel N, Masina S. Leishmania RNA virus controls the severity of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Science 2011; 331 :775.&#13;
&#13;
Kato H, Gomez EAL, Seki C, Furumoto H, Martini-Robles L, Muzzio J, Calvopiand;ntilde;a M, Velez LN, Kubo M, Tabbabi A, Yamamoto DS, Hashiguchi Y. PCR-RFLP analyses of Leishmania species causing cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis revealed distribution of genetically complex strains with hybrid and mito-nuclear discordance in Ecuador. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019; 13: e0007403.&#13;
&#13;
Krause G, Kroeger A. Topical treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with paramomycin and methylbenzethonium chloride: a clinical study under field conditions in Ecuador. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994; 88: 92-94.&#13;
&#13;
Layegh P, Pezeshkpoor F, Soruri AH, Naviafar P, Moghiman T. Efficacy of cryotherapy versus intralesional meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009; 80: 172-175.&#13;
&#13;
Layegh P, Rahsepar S, Rahsepar AA. Systemic meglumine antimoniate in acute cutaneous leishmaniasis: children versus adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011a; 84: 539–542.&#13;
&#13;
Layegh P, Rajabi O, Jafari MR, Malekshah ETP, Moghiman T, Ashraf H, Salari R. Efficacy of topical liposomal amphotericin B versus intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Parasitol Res 2011b; 2011: 656523.&#13;
&#13;
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Ruano C, Rivera J, Teran E, Salazar-Irigoyen R, Esplugues JV, Moncada S. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with nitric-oxide donor. Lancet 1998; 351: 1176–1177.&#13;
&#13;
Molares M. Reporte de casos de leishmaniasis disminuyen en Manabi. Reduccion medica, Salud Publ 2017.&#13;
&#13;
Nonaka S, Gand;oacute;mez EAL, Sud RA, Alava JJ, Katakura K, Hashiguchi Y. Topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador. In: Hashiguchi, Y. (Ed.), Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, With Particular Reference to Ecuador (Res. Rep. Ser. 3). Kyowa Print. and; Co. Ltd., Kochi, Japan. 1992; p: 115-124.&#13;
&#13;
Olalla HR, Velez LN, Kato H, Hashiguchi K, Cand;aacute;ceres AG, Gomez EAL, Zambrano FC, Romero-Alvares D, Guevara AG, Hashiguchi Y. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012. Acta Trop 2015; 145: 119-126.&#13;
&#13;
Reithinger R, Dujardinm JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 581-596.&#13;
&#13;
Reithinger R, Mohsen M, Aadil K, Sidiqi M, Erasmus P, Coleman PG. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9: 727-729.&#13;
&#13;
Reithinger R, Mohsen M, Wahid M, Bismullah M, Quinnell RJ, Davies CR, Kolaczinski J, David JR. Efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kabul, Afghanistan: a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 1148-1155.&#13;
&#13;
Rosal T, Artigo FB, Miguel MJG, Lucas R, Castillo F. Successful treatment of childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis with liposomal amphotericin B: report of two cases. J Trop Paediatr 2010; 56: 122-124.&#13;
&#13;
Rossi-Bergmann B, Falcand;atilde;o CAB, Zanchetta B, Bentley MVLB, Santana MHA. Performance of elastic liposomes for topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Nanocosmet Nanomed 2011; 9: 181-196.&#13;
&#13;
Sosa N, Capitand;aacute;n Z, Nieto J, Nieto M, Calzada J, Paz H, Spadafora C, Kreishman-Deitrick M, Kopydlowski K, Ullman D, McCarthy WF, Ransom J, Berman J, Scott C, Grogl M. Randomized, double-blinded, phase 2 trial of WR 279,396 (paromomycin and gentamicin) for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013; 89: 557-563.&#13;
&#13;
Sosa N, Pascale JM, Jimenez AI, Norwood JA, Kreishman-Detrick M, Weina PJ, Lawrence K, McCarty WF, Adams RC, Scott C, Ransom J, Tang D, Grogl M. Topical paromomycin for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019; 13: e0007253. &#13;
&#13;
Tuon FF, Amato VS, Graf ME, Siqueira AM, Nicodemo AC, Amato Neto V. Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis -a systematic review with a meta-analysis. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47: 109-124.&#13;
&#13;
Vardy D, Barenholz Y, Naftoliev N, Klaus S, Gilead L, Frankenburg S. Efficacious topical treatment for human cutaneous leishmaniasis with ethanolic lipid amphotericin B. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 2001; 95: 184-186.&#13;
&#13;
Varikuti S, Oghumu S, Saljoughian N, Pioso MS, Sedmak BE, Khamesipour A, Satoskar AR. Topical treatment with nanoliposomal amphotericin B reduces early lesion growth but fails to induce cure in an experimaental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana. Acta Trop 2017; 173: 102-108.&#13;
&#13;
Weigel MM, Armijos RX, Racines RJ, Zurita C, Izurieta R, Herrera E, Hinojosa E. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment. Bull Pan Am Hlth Org 1994; 28: 142-155.&#13;
&#13;
Weigel MM, Armijos RX. The traditional and conventional medical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2001; 10: 395-404.&#13;
&#13;
Weinrauch L, Katz M, El-On J. Leishmania aethiopica: topical treatment with paromomycin and methylbenzethonium chloride ointment. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16: 1268-1270.&#13;
&#13;
World Health Organiztion (WHO), 2018. Global Health Observatory data repository: Number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported. https://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.NTDLEISHCNUMv.&#13;
&#13;
Zvulunov A, Emanuala C, Shoshana F, Yehezkel B, Daniel V. Topical treatment of persistent cutaneous leishmaniasis with ethanolic lipid amphotericin B. Pediatric Infect Dis J 2003; 22: 567-569.</References>
      </References>
    </Journal>
  </Article>
</ArticleSet>